Introduction to PuppetWayang is a legendary world of traditional Javanese performances. World populated by puppets themselves gods, kings, princes and poor noble, beautiful princesses, demons, giant, scary creatures, teachers, civil servants, and comedians, all of whom are members of the Javanese culture familiar, berkecintaan, and moodiness. It is also often called the world's puppet shadow world. There are several points of view on the definition of the puppet, the puppet in the narrow sense (which literally means shadow) refers to the doll stemmed from a carved flat leather, while the puppet in the broad sense is a dramatic show, a play, a show in which the actors could doll or human. So the puppet world covers one type of traditional Javanese theater. The main forms of wayang, which is as follows.
Puppet is known and loved in Java, Balli, and several other areas that are dwelling people of Java. In this puppet narrative and dialogue diresitasi by puppeteers (the storyteller who plays all the dolls), the audience can sit in front of or behind the screen, so can see the dolls are real or just look at the shadows. According to the story that was shown (story) wayang kulit is divided into three, namely as follows.
Purwa itself means that at first. The stories in this puppet drawn from four groups of myth. The first is called prehistory that is based in part on adiparwa (the beginning of the Mahabharata), the second is Arjuna Literature myths about the smell of the origins of important figures from the Ramayana and also the relationship between the Ramayana and the Mahabharata are determined, the third is the story of the Ramayana itself, and the fourth story of the Pandavas and Kauravas in the Mahabharata connected.
3. Puppet Gedhog
Wayang puppets puppets gedhong different prototype in terms of fashion, and the ornaments or headscarves. The story is taken from the puppet legends banner of East Tawa. Puppet is popular in East Java.
4. Puppet Associate
Associate itself means middle. The stories on this puppet wiracitra based on the poem of the 19th century with the theme of the poet Ranggawasita forecasters Jayabaya reign of East Java.
In addition there are several types of puppets that are not included in the last grouping, among other things:
1. Puppet kuluk, which was introduced under the V lane on the history of the region of Yogyakarta.
2. Puppet struggle by RM Sayid, who tells of the heroic guerrilla warfare during the Indonesian revolution.
3. Puppet torch in Madison created at the initiative of the youth congress in there lakonannya Indonesian leaders, military officials, and civic leaders, in addition there are also enemies (the Netherlands) and the penengahnya (UN representatives). The story is about the war of the revolution and treaties sponsored by the United Nations.
4. Pancasila puppets designed by Harsono Hadisoeseno. These puppets are used for political education to the period in which there were five Pandavas used to symbolize the five principles of the Republic of Indonesia.
5. Puppets for religious missions, such as the Catholic missions in Central Java. With dolls that represent the mother goddess Maria.
Traditionally woven into the shadow puppet function ruwatan, propitiation (to entertain), as well as prayer for fertility. Sacral properties of shadow puppets and magical power is still felt by the mastermind who as shaman and also by the community.
5. Puppet Klitik
Puppet is also called kerucil (which refers to a small wooden dolls that are carved in flat relief and painted). The stories on this puppet Damar Wulan contains stories and story-Panji stories. Wayang puppets klitik looks less material and more limited effect than puppets shadow puppets.
6. Puppet show
These puppets performed with dolls of wood, three-dimensional, and fashion. Story-the story of the puppet is about the arab prince Amir Hamzah (the Prophet's uncle), but it also contains stories about knights of Ramayana and Mahabharata. Puppet show is probably the youngest and the most secular of all Javanese puppet shows and also may have been introduced into the interior of the island of Java from northern coastal areas. In West Java, among the Sundanese puppet show was very popular until this puppet precedence over shadow puppets.
7. Puppet Mask
Wayang means guise. Puppet mask itself means a pantomime dance performances by masked actors therein storyline narrated by puppeteers and story content is Panji stories-stories.
8. Wayang Beber
Wayang form of illustrations drawn on scrolls horizontally held mastermind and accompanied with the story-the story of the puppeteer.
9. Wayang Wayang Wong or person (man in Indonesian)
Wayang is a dance drama in which only meresitasi mastermind and singing and dialogue spoken by the actors themselves. Puppet is about story-the story of Ramayana and Mahabharata.
10. Wayang and their origins
Puppet itself thought to have existed in the year 907 AD in the stone inscriptions issued by the kings Balitung. In the tablets have the word meaning mawayang pertuunjukan puppet. Parasasti clearly proves that the puppet bersaman together with dance, music, songs and jokes, and the recitation of Ramayana and Mahabharata, and also part of the ritual celebrations held by the king. But this does not answer on the origin of Indonesian wayang, as previously puppet has existed in India by the name of "Chayanataka" (drama shadows). Chayanataka itself has similarities with Indonesian wayang, ie in terms of radiant holiness, the theme of the play, sung recitation, dolls and commentators. There was also a puppet performances in other areas, such as in Thailand with the figure of "nang" (Kayon the Indonesian wayang) is great, which is also often shaped leaves, except that there was also a puppet show in Malaysia with larger dolls of Javanese wayang puppets and puppetry performances in China with dolls show translucent, and use a lot of colors. Of all the areas puppetry before, there are some people who think that India is a source of puppet shows in Indonesia. However, there are some people who manganggap puppet show that in each and every daerahh have repetoar and their own style, which is also based on myths or fairy tale satire which is part of the culture of the people. So therefore puppets in Indonesia creation Javanese, Balinese unique in shape and story-plot led by the storyteller, which is called "The Mastermind worth Honored".
11. Dalang and Theaternya
Dalang is a central force from the world of puppets, story writer, producer, storyteller, and is also a major driver of the world are illusory puppet. Art of the mastermind formerly conveyed from father to son, from master to apprentice, but now has been taught in schools in Central Java. As for the things that must be mastered mastermind, are as follows.
1. Tambo (historical), a puppeteer must master knowledge of the story-the old story.
2. Gendhing (music), a puppeteer must understand about the songs, and chants phases.
3. Gendheng (recitation), a puppeteer must have a mastery of recitation were sung and accompanied by gamelan.
4. Gendeng (courage impartiality), a puppeteer must behave like a person who does not bother to say anything and like a madman.
5. Language, a puppeteer must have skill in the use of language that is suitable for any puppet statuses.
6. Ompak-ompakan (eloquence), a puppeteer must be able to make exaggerated statements and soulful.
7. Science inner (spiritual knowledge), a puppeteer must be able to explain the essence of the knowledge he says.
In addition there is also the mastermind behind the nickname for a leader of a puppet show, which Wadian. Wadian himself another name of the mastermind in Borneo. A wadian must be a trance, because trance is the door to the spirit world where, especially in the worship ceremony, the causes of and treatments for the disease should be sought. So the meaning of the mastermind is someone who has a cameo in the creation of skills as well as policies, but it also has a strong immune system. Skills mastermind covers all gestures, the motion of the arms, hands, fingers, feet and the atmosphere is maintained and also bebarengan with rhythmic patterns. In case there are many dolls themselves gradation of quality. The most nice doll is a masterpiece of the skin such as embroidery and have clamps and rods handle made of horn. As for the tools to stick puppet while performing the Kayon (Kekayon), also known as piles. Kayon itself is made from banana stems in india called Jarjara. Kayon different Kayon Jawa Bali, bali Kekayon has a curved peak and dedaun bushy tree that fills most of the figure. Besides bali style puppets are slightly different from the naturalistic style of Javanese wayang, but similar to figures in East Java reliefs carved in the style of puppet.
12. The Story Staged
The story of the play is being staged performances shadows, but rarely play-the play is written in a form that includes a complete dialogue. The play itself means an organized series of scenes that are sustainable. In the play itself, there are three basic phases, namely:
1. The first phase
This phase lasted from about 8 until midnight. In this phase confirmed the situation, and at this stage there are three scenes. In the first scene contains discussions on the king's ward, and also a bit of controversy. In the second act there are preparations started out in court, as the messengers are sent, the allies appear, conflicting parties met and the interminable war. In this phase of gamelan music is in specialized tonality called pathet nem.
2. The second phase
This phase takes place at midnight. In this phase contains manifestations of an unpleasant nature, the main heroes appear punakawannya containing about distress and grief heroes, and entertainments of punakawannya that made the audience laugh. Gamelan music in this phase has tonality pathet dross.
3. The third phase
This phase lasts about 3 am. In this phase contains the sequel story, characters antogonis killed, and also filled with additional wars that sealed the victory.
4. Typical iconography and Soul of the World Puppet
Wayang is a stable, based on the conflict. In the world there is a world puppet right (tkoh good) and left the world (the villain). In each of the world's puppet sorted according to military functions (eg prince, teachers, military commanders), temperamental traits, and sometimes age. In the form of dolls there are several traits that indicate the nature or form of nature, one of which is the hallmark of the face. As an example of facial shape Arjuna, its features are the shrunken eyes, nose inclined downwards, his head often bowed, all of which signifies patience, responsibility, and not easily daunted. In addition, many other features that have different meanings, ie, the colors on the face. The colors on the face memilliki different meaning, among other significant black maturity in adulthood, virtue and peace, red meaningful passions uncontrolled, significant gold beauty, status kingdom, principality, and kebasaran, and color Highborn significant white, young, and good looks. Sometimes there is a character in a show of the same faces appear with different colors, to mark the different aspects of the character or tingakatan-levels in life. There are also signs on the face that has meaning, that beard. Beard signifies virility, like the examples found in the Milky puppet. Apart from the earlier puppet figures, there are also characters who are gods Indonesia, namely Semar, Gareng, Petruk. They symbolize the simple village folk sound, with all their strength, pain, and wisdom.
The objectives of the story-the story of wayang (play) are intended to demonstrate the positive (good) to be owned by humans, but it is also the play-the play had used some sort of history for children. It is also the story-the story of the puppet was sometimes summed up and expressed in the scriptures, such as the book "Bhagavad Gita" or chant the divine which is the moral dilemma of Arjuna disclosure feeling at the time before the war against his own brother.
Gambar PUPPET WORLD